How Trauma is Passed Down Through Sperm
Thought your children were safe from SPERM Think again! Hey guys, Tara here for Dnews with a heartwarming tale about sperm, and all the ways it can screw up your future children. You may remember a Dnews I did a while back that talked about memories and specifically, phobias being passed down through our DNA. And if you thought that was terrifying it gets worse. A study published in this week's issue of Nature Neuroscience finds that past trauma can also be passed down to your children through sperm.
It's long been known that children and grandchildren of people who've survived traumatic events like abuse or war are more likely to experience mental illness than the rest of the population. But despite hundreds of studies, there are still no known genes responsible for depression and borderline personality disorder. According to this study, people who experience early childhood trauma often exhibit a number of hormonal imbalances, including overexpression of microRNAs, which are snippets of genetic material that regulate gene expression. Too many of these, can cause a dip in the production of certain proteins.
Researchers exposed a group of male mice to repeated and prolonged periods of intense stress, thus inducing symptoms of depression. They then allowed the mice to reproduce, and found that both the second and third generation of offspring showed the same symptoms of trauma, despite never having experienced it themselves. Perhaps more interesting, the researchers found that, like their parents', the sperm of the second generation offspring also exhibited abnormally high numbers of microRNAs. However, the third generation did not even though maladaptive behaviors were clearly present. It's possible, researchers say, that the alteration is transferred into another nongenetic.
Mark before it hits the third generation but the overall results of the study, demonstrate just how sensitive reproductive cells are to early environmental conditions. So, maybe something to consider if you plan on having children. Just a thought. As always, if you have questions about this study there are links in the description with more info. Below that, is a comment box for all your spermrelated discussion. Also, if you wanna know more fun sperm facts, be sure to check out the latest episode of Anyhoo. Fascinating stuff. Thanks for watching, and be sure to subscribe here for more Dnews!.
Sisters battle rare, fatal genetic disease found in 100 people worldwide
YOU ARE WATCHING NEWS CENTER FIVE AT 1100. AN ESTIMATED 100 PEOPLE WORLDWIDE HAVE THE SYNDROME TYPE C. 3 LIVE IN BELMONT. ONE LOCAL FAMILIES STORY OF COURAGE AND HOPE. FOR BELMONT PARENTS PAUL AND NANCY BURKE, THE WAR IS NEVER STOP. THEY HAVE ORTHOPEDIC PROBLEMS, HEART PROBLEMS. IT IS A CONSTANT STRESS. THE LOVE AND SUPPORT DOES NOT STOP EITHER. THEY GET UP EVERY DAY WITH A SMILE ON THEIR FACE EVEN THOUGH EACH DAY IS SO CHALLENGING FOR THEM. HOW COULD WE NOT GET UP WITH A SMILE ON OUR FACE.
WAX IT STARTED WHEN THE OLDEST OF THEIR THREE GIRLS STARTED HAVING TROUBLE IN SCHOOL AT SIX YEARS OLD. EVERYTHING WAS FINE PRIOR TO THAT. HER HEALTH KEPT GETTING WORSE AND IT WOULD BE ANOTHER THREE YEARS BEFORE A WERE FINALLY TOLD WHY. ONE OF THE MOST TERRIBLE DISEASES THAT EXISTS. SHE HAS SANFILIPPO SYNDROME TYPE SEE TYPE C, THE RAREST FORM OF A DISEASE THAT DESTROYS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. RESEARCHERS ESTIMATE JUST 100 PEOPLE WORLDWIDE HAVE THIS AND THEY SOON FOUND OUT DAUGHTERS LINDSAY AND KELSEY DID TOO. THE MATERIAL ACCUMULATES IN.
THE BODY, IN THE BRAIN, UNFORTUNATELY. IT ALSO CAUSES SOME OTHER ABNORMALITIES SUCH AS WARS AND FACIAL FEATURES. COARSENED FACIAL FEATURES. AT THAT TIME, THEY TOLD US THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY WAS 14. YOU ARE SO SHOCKED AND YOUR HEART IS RIPPED OUT OF YOU. YOU CANNOT GIVE INTO IT OR WALLOW IN IT BECAUSE YOU HAVE A FAMILY TO TAKE CARE OF. OVER THE YEARS, THEY HAVE HAD TO WATCH THE CHILDREN THEY ONCE KNEW SLIP AWAY. THEY PLAYED BASKETBALL, SOCCER. THEY RODE HORSES. THEY DID EVERYTHING. WE GOT TO KNOW THEM.
WE GOT TO KNOW THE PEOPLE THAT WE THOUGHT THEY WERE GOING TO BE. JILLIAN, THEY'RE HAPPY SUNSHINE. LINDSAY, SUITE AND CURIOUS. KELSEY, THE SPITFIRE OF THE FAMILY. FAST FORWARD TO TODAY. ALL THREE HAVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS, TROUBLE COMMUNICATING, AND BALANCE ISSUES. LINDSAY HAS A FEEDING TUBE. DESPITE IT ALL, THEY'RE SWEET SPIRIT AND STRENGTH STILL SHINE THROUGH. ALL THREE GIRLS, NOW IN THEIR 20'S, ARE BEATING THE ODDS. WE STILL BELIEVE THAT SOMETHING CAN BE DONE, THAT THEY CAN HAVE A FUTURE AND THAT IT CAN BE REVERSED. A CURE.
How Does Gene Therapy Work
Gene therapy has the potential to save millions of lives if we can just figure out how to make it work. Hey peeps, thanks for tuning in to Dnews. I'm Trace. Gene therapy sounds like a nice easy treatment right that's therapy. In some ways it is on the macro level, but in your cells it's a little bit invasive. In gene therapy, doctors are basically hacking the DNA of a living human. Using genetically engineered retroviruses called vectors, scientists infect human cells. The retrovirus can be programmed to carry a.
Gene or a little bit of DNA that will overwrite the messed up mutation and make it work properly. It was first tried on a young girl in 1990 and despite some early failures it has the potential to revolutionize treatment of genetic disorders. The Journal of Science describes one of the recent successes that gene therapists say was really exciting. A few children were born with metachromatic leukodystrophy which causes a defective immune system and some brain disorders and kids who have it usually don't live past the age of five. Bone marrow contains stem cells, the cells.
Normally produce red blood cells but they can be reprogrammed using gene therapy it's a little risky, but it can work. Taking bone marrow from these kids doctors were able to infect the cells with a retrovirus and replace the stem cells mutated gene with the repaired gene. Then they reinjected that back into the patient and the fixed cells multiplied and as of the time we filmed this, the patients are all in good condition, and are heading to kindergarten at that time that others with that disease can't even speak.
There maybe future side effects but they seem pretty happy with the result at the moment I mean I would be. Science just helped some kids! Whoo! It's not just useful in children. Scientists have also used gene therapy on dogs to cure them of Type 1 Diabetes with two of their doggie patients still alive years later. The treatment involved injecting two things into dogs' muscles. One gene to send glucose and an enzyme to dictate glucose absorption. Scientists don't have to target our DNA, they can also use gene therapy to target the DNA of cancer cells.
It's like they gave cancer cancer. You've seen this before if you've been following Dnews. A protein called CD47 is like a passport that tells your immune system not to attack a cell. Normally cancer produces a ton of CD47. Using gene therapy on the cancer, scientist turned off that cell production and let the immune system blow it out of the sky like a decloaked Klingon bird of prey Gene therapy is still in its infancy but the promise of future cures for everything from cancer to genetic disorders is pretty incredible.
Gene variant identified as a heart disease risk factor for women
This is all about why it is that women have heart disease we used to think that women live longer than men, heart disease wasn't a problem. We know that's not true. Women, especially after menopause, are very likely to have heart disease, more likely to die of heart disease, and less likely to have good care, or optimal care related to their heart disease. The importance of our work is I think we're starting to open the door on the genetics of heart disease in women and it's all about.
This receptor, GPER. Where our work has been important to identify that activation of this receptor was known to be associated with lowering blood pressure. What we found is that common variation in the gene for this receptor when expressed in women translates into both higher blood pressure and that women presenting to a high blood pressure clinic are more likely to be carrying this gene. So we think it's a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure which is the major risk factor in the development of heart disease.
Curing disease by repairing faulty Genes. MIT boosts efficiency of CRISPR genomeediting system.
The genomeediting technique known as CRISPR allows scientists to clip a specific DNA sequence and replace it with a new one, offering the potential to cure diseases caused by defective genes. For this potential to be realized, however, scientists must find a way to safely deliver the CRISPR machinery and a corrected copy of the DNA into the diseased cells. MIT researchers have now developed a way to deliver the CRISPR genome repair components more efficiently than previously possible, and they also believe it may be safer for human use. In a study of mice, they found that they could correct the mutated gene that.
Blame Neanderthals For Our Disease Genes
New research suggests we might have our Neanderthal ancestors to blame for certain diseases. According to a new study published Wednesday in the journal Nature, genes associated with diseases like type 2 diabetes, lupus and smoking addiction in modern humans today were passed on to us by remnants of Neanderthal DNA. Researchers led by Havard Medical School geneticists found that modern humans with nonAfrican ancestry share about 2 percent of their genome with Neanderthals. Previous studies revealed that, 50,000 years ago, modernday humans left Africa and headed to Europe and East Asia. There, they crossed paths with Neanderthals. Via BBC.
The two species coexisted for a while and mated, but the Neanderthals as a whole eventually died off about 30,000 years ago. That is, except for the Neanderthal genes that still exist in us. According to The Independent, during the study, scientists analyzed the genetic makeup of 846 people of nonAfrican ancestry, 176 from subSaharan Africa and one 50,000yearold Neanderthal. They found that certain parts of the nonAfrican genome could be found in Neanderthal DNA, while other regions didn't show a trace of it. According to Harvard Medical School's report, this mixture of DNA was linked to nine previously.
UC Davis Finds Gene Mutation for Heart Disease in Newfoundlands
So, subaortic stenosis is a congenital heart disease that we see really commonly in Newfoundlands. It's the most common heart disease that dogs are born with and of the breed that we see, Newfoundlands are really overrepresented for this disease. It is characterized by an abnormal ridge of tissue just below the aortic valve that causes severe heart disease in dogs, specifically Newfoundland dogs. So moderate or severe, affected dogs with subaortic stenosis can have episodes of fainting or collapse associated with ventricular arrhythmias, or cardiac arrhythmias. They can also go into congestive heart failure where they.
Have difficulty breathing and some dogs will display exercise intolerance with play activity and other dogs, won't show any signs and unfortunately their first sign of disease is sudden death. Diagnosis of aortic stenosis is first suspected based on the presence of a heart murmur at the level of the aorta. Confirmation of this disease relies upon ultrasound of the heart to measure the speed with which blood moves out of the aorta. This disease is not very common in human beings either, and so we didn't have a really good starting place of genes to screen.
There were a few that were proposed to interact in that area of the heart, but screening of those genes didn't identify any mutations. So we really had to take a whole genome or look at every chromosome in the dog genome type of approach to find the cause of the mutation for this disease. Genetic screening test is now available for this mutation that's associated with the disease. And so, breeders can screen their pets for this mutation presence. And know that breeding these dogs that have the mutation, is a certain risk for development of disease.
Diseaseresistance Gene Identified in Peppers
Researches are the UC Davis Seed and Biotechnology Center have identified a candidate gene that encodes a enzyme in peppers meant to trigger resistance to a common pathogen. The pathogen Phytophthora capsici spreads the root rot disease that can severely affect crop yields in the pepper industry. Doctoral candidate Zeb Rehrig, under the direction of Allen Van Deynze, used 400 lines from four populations of peppers for the study. The effects of the pathogen on a flat of peppers is shown in this tutorial over a period of six days. This particular isolate was collected from the Northeastern part of the U.S.
Gene editing with CRISPRCas9
I think the thing that's amazing about science and about biology for me is that there's always more to be discovered, and every time we feel like we've figured something out, it seems to open up several more questions. gentle percussive music Scientists have appreciated for a long time that once we understood the DNA sequence in cells, if we had a tool that would allow easy manipulation of that sequence, that that would be a very powerful kind of technology. gentle percussive music CRISPR is a technology for changing the sequence.
Of DNA in cells in a precise fashion to correct mutations that might otherwise cause disease. It's going to enable a lot of science to be done that was impossible to do in the past. So the way the CRISPR technology works is by the action of a protein called Cas9 that functions like a molecular scalpel for DNA. The CRISPR Cas9 system has an amazing ability to recognize a particular DNA sequence in a cell that may be malfunctioning, and then disable it by cutting the DNA. We call this gene editing, and we can use it.
To disable or repair a mutated part of the gene, which may be causing disease. For Cas9 to find the malfunctioning DNA, we attach it to an RNA sequence that matches the DNA sequence we want to edit. Then we put this RNA Cas9 combination into the cell. It finds the mutant DNA and uses the chemical reaction to cut the DNA strand right at the spot where it's malfunctioning. After that, we can sometimes insert the correct version of the gene for the cell to work properly again. It's a very exciting technology that's going to do.
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