Background Music Starts From exercise to underwear, we count downthe 10 Most Bizarre Allergies 10: Shoes: Believe it or not, some peopleare allergic to leather. Referred to as contact dermatitis, this condition is a reaction tothe chemicals used to tan the leather. Signs for this allergy range from a burning sensationto itchy rashes. It’s also possible for someone to be allergic to shoes with rubbermaterial or metal clasps that contain nickel. What’s the solution for something like this?A number of sufferers wear thick socks or avoid certain shoes altogether.

9: Water: In 2008, an article was publishedabout a 19yearold Australian named Ashleigh Morris. Morris said that even sweat couldcause pain. This condition is called aquagenic urticaria, and it’s very rare. So rare,in fact, that only 50 cases have been documented worldwide. Someone suffering from this allergywill get hives within minutes of skin contact. It doesn’t matter if the water is hot orcold, pure or filled with chlorine – the results can be the same. There is no knowncure. 8: Sunlight: Many people avoid the beachif they don’t want a nasty sunburn, but someone with a sun allergy has a differentreason for staying away. Known as solar urticaria,

this condition causes hives to appear on theskin when the subject makes contact with “ultraviolet or UV radiation.â€� Even visible light cancause problems. Discovered in 1904 by P. Merklen, it received its official name in 1923. Antihistaminescan be used to treat it. 7: Modern Life: In 2013, Julia Taylor claimedshe suffered from headaches and blackouts because of an allergy to “manmade radiation.â€�In other words, cell phones, computers, and microwaves were making her sick, the verythings that make up modern life. Called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (or EHS), this conditionis controversial. The United Kingdom’s Health Protection Agency says EHS doesn’t exist,but Sweden calls it a “functional impairment.â€�

6: Money: The coins sitting at the bottomof your purse may be harmless to you, but they can wreak havoc on the skin of someonewith contact dermatitis. That’s because nickel is one of the metals used to createcoins, and this metal can cause allergic reactions. Experts recommend avoiding coins and usingantihistamines to treat the affected spot after exposure. 5: Cold Temperatures: A chilly day can beuncomfortable for anyone, but people with cold urticaria get more than goose bumps whenthey step outside. Itchy skin, rashes, and hives are just a few symptoms of this allergy.An innocent activity like going for a swim

in a cold pool or lake could lead to anaphylacticshock and a trip to the . The cause of this condition is unknown, but it may beconnected to genetics or an illness. 4: Exercise: Exerciseinduced anaphylaxis(EIA) occurs when someone eats a food or ingests a medication they’re allergic to and worksout afterward. It’s a very serious reaction that can lead to nausea, vomiting, itching,hives, difficulty breathing, and even unconsciousness. According to experts, a person dealing withEIA should wear a medicalert bracelet and have an exercise buddy nearby in case of anemergency. It’s also important to avoid eating or taking anything that would triggerthe allergic reaction “the day before and

day of� the exercise. 3: Beef: Meat lovers might find this onehard to accept. According to a report released in 2001 by the Internet Symposium on FoodAllergens, up to 6.5% of children suffer from a beef allergy. Most of them outgrow it, butthere are adults with a permanent problem. Reactions range from hives to difficulty breathing.This allergy is believed to be connected to a carbohydrate known as alphagal, a stapleingredient in beef. 2: Deodorant: If you feel dizzy, find a rashin your armpit, or experience abdominal pain after you use a deodorant, you may be allergic.The acidic ingredients in deodorant are supposed

Type IV hypersensitivity cellmediated causes symptoms treatment pathology

Having a hypersensitivity means that someone’simmune system has reacted to something in such a way that it ends up damaging them,as opposed to protecting them. There are four different types of hypersensitivities,and in the fourth type or type 4, the reactions are caused by T lymphocytes, or T cells, andso type IV is also sometimes known as Tcellmediated hypersensitivity. T cells are called T cells because they maturein the thymus. The two types of T cells that cause damageto tissues in type IV hypersensitivity are CD8+ T cells also known as killer T cellsor cytotoxic T cells, as well as CD4+ T cells

also known as helper T cells. CD8+ killer T cells do exactly what theirname implies they kill things. They are like silent assassins of the immunesystem that go after very specific targets. In contrast, CD4+ T cells locally releasecytokines, which are small proteins that can stimulate or inhibit other cells. So CD4+ T cells act like little army generalscoordinating immune cells around them. But both CD8+ and CD4+ cells start off asnaive cells because their T cell receptor or TCR has not yet bound to their target antigen which is that specific molecule it can bind

to. Alright so let’s play out a scenario. Let’s say someone’s skin brushes up againstpoison ivy, and gets the molecule urushiol all over. That molecule’s small enough to quicklymake it’s way through the epidermis to the dermis, which is where it might combine withsmall proteins, it then might get picked up by a langerhans cell also known as a dendriticcell, which is a type of antigenpresenting immune cell.

The dendritic cell then takes it to the nearestlymph node the draining lymph node, where it presents the antigen on its surface usinga MHC class II molecule, which is basically a serving platter for CD4+ T cells to comecheck out. If a TH cell recognizes the antigen, it bindsto the MHC class II molecule using its T cell receptor, as well as CD4, which is a coreceptorand this is why it’s called a CD4+ T cell. At this point the CD4+ or helper T cell willalso express a CD28 protein which will bind to the B7 protein on the surface of the dendriticcell. Once it binds to the TCR and the CD28 protein,the dendritic cell releases interleukin 12,

a cytokine, or signaling molecule, that tellsthe naive CD4+ T cell to mature and differentiate into a type 1 helper T cell, or a TH1 cell a sort of coming of age moment. At this point, the CD4+ T cell is no longerconsider naive, instead it’s an effector cell, that’s able to release the cytokineIL2, which helps both it and other T cells in the area proliferate, as well as interferongamma, which activates phagocytes like macrophages and creates more TH1 cells. Those activated macrophages release proinflammatorycytokines like tumor necrosis factor, IL1, and IL6, which cause leakiness in the endothelialbarriers and allows more immune cells into

the area, all of which leads to local swellingor edema, redness, and warmth as well as systemic symptoms like a fever. Activated macrophages will also secrete lysosomalenzymes, complement components, and reactive oxygen species into the exposed area, whichdamages tissue. In the case of poison ivy, since this is allgoing on in the skin, it’s called dermatitis, inflammation of the skin. This kind of contact dermatitis rash doesn’tonly happen from poison ivy, though, it can also happen in some people in response towearing nickel which is often found in earrings

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